Dexpanthenol

What is Dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol is a synthetic drug that is derived from pantothenic acid. This is a vitamin B in the complex family that is widely distributed in all plants and animals. Dexpanthenol is clinically used as a gastrointestinal stimulant whose main function is to prevent ileus after a gastrointestinal surgery. It can also be used to treat conditions that are associated with impaired gastrointestinal activities. This drug was approved for clinical use by the FDA in 1948.

Mechanisms of Action

Dexpanthenol is a precursor that is essential for the synthesis of acetylcholine. This factor facilitates parasympathetic activities which maintain the normal functioning of the GI. However, its exact mechanisms of action are not known.

Pharmacokinetics of Dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol can be administered via an intravenous injection or an intramuscular injection. Its exact pharmacokinetics has not been clearly established.

Indications and Dosages for Dexpanthenol

When this medication is used for the treatment of dynamic ileus, the intramuscular dosage should be delivered at 500 mg and this should be repeated after 2 hours, then after 6 hours/ as required by the patient. The intravenous injection should also be administered at 500 mg via a slow intravenous infusion. This should also be repeated after 2 hours then after 6 hours/ as required by the patient.

When it is being used for the treatment of post-operative ileus prophylaxis, it can be administered at 250 mg or 500 mg, which should be repeated after 2 hours, after 6 hours, then as required by the patient until all the danger of the dynamic ileus has passed.

The maximum dosage limit for adults and geriatrics is 3000 mg per day. It is not advisable to administer this medicine to adolescents, children, and infants because its safety and efficacy in these groups have not been established.

Contraindications of Dexpanthenol

Very rare cases of allergic reactions have been reported with the use of Dexpanthenol, these effects can be augmented when this medication is combined with drugs that contain narcotics, antibiotics, and barbiturates.

Dexpanthenol should be exclusively used only when it is required during a pregnancy. Dexpanthenol is classified under the pregnancy risk category C of the FDA and evidential animal reproductive studies have not been conducted on it.

It is not clearly known if dexpanthenol is excreted into breast milk but since most medications are usually passed on to breast milk, it is advisable to exercise caution anytime this medication is being administered to a woman who is breastfeeding. You should consider the benefits of the breastfeeding, the risk of the condition if left untreated and the potential risk of the drug exposure to an infant. If a breastfeeding infant experiences any negative side effects after ingesting this medication, health service providers are advised to report these effects to the FDA.

Dexpanthenol should be used cautiously in the management of adynamic ileus and this should also include the management of any fluid or electrolyte imbalances like anemia, hypoproteinemia, and hypokalemia. All drugs which are known to decrease the motility of the Gastro-intestines should be avoided.

If the ileus is secondary to a mechanical GI obstruction, it is advisable to have your attention on the obstruction first before you treat the ileus.

Adverse Reactions and Side Effects of Dexpanthenol

Some cases of respiratory depression have been reported in patients who have had treatment using dexpanthenol. Some days after a surgery that was followed by the administration of dexpanthenol, some patients experienced diarrhea and vomiting.

This drug has minimal side effects but some allergic reactions like pruritus, tingling, an unspecified urticaria rash and some difficulty in breathing can be experienced, in this case, the administration of this medicine should be discontinued immediately.

Conclusion

Dexpanthenol Injection is usually indicated for the  Treatment of adynamic ileus and Post-operative ileus prophylaxis. The dosage strengths of Dexpanthenol Injection available at our pharmacy is 30 mL vial and 250 mg/mL.

The dosage form available for Dexpanthenol at Absolute Pharmacy is an Injection Solution and our Pharmacy’s injection solutions are compounded under the stringent USP 797 guidelines which ensure sterile compounding and sterility. Potency, pH testing and testing for endotoxins are also performed on every batch. Our quality- assurance process ensures that all the products, solutions and injections that we dispense are consistent, safe, and uniform. For more information on this medication and its administration, feel free to contact us.