Glutathione is a peptide composed of three amino acids i.e. cysteine, glutamine and glycine. It is a water soluble potent reducing agent with a low molecular weight that exists in abundance as a thiol. It is also an antioxidant.
Glutathione plays a very important role in the body’s detoxification. This makes it very fundamental to fungi, plants and animals. It catalyses glutathione S transferases(GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) therefore eliminating the reactive peroxides and the toxic electrophilic molecules.
Additionally, it is very important in various cellular reactions. It is crucial to RNA and DNA nucleotide reduction and it regulates gene and protein expression in the body. It is also responsible for some exchange reactions like converting thiols to disulfides.
Glutathione exists intracellularly either in its reduced state as glutathione or its oxidised state of glutathione disulphide. The ratio of reduced-glutathione to that of oxidised glutathione disulphide is very important in cell survival so this process is always monitored and highly regulated in the body.
A glutathione deficiency in an individual puts their cells at a high risk of oxidative damages. A deficiency of glutathione can be caused by many conditions. Some include; Cancer, Cystic fibrosis, HIV, ageing and neurodegenerative disorders.
During some clinical trials of glutathione medication on male fertility, injections of 600 mg glutathione were administered on specific subjects daily. This treatment demonstrated a positive effect on sperm- mobility, kinetic parameters of computerised analysis showed an increase in the percentage of forward mobility and sperm morphology.
Evaluations of administration of glutathione in Parkinson’s disease. Subjects were randomly administered with 1400 mg of glutathione or a placebo administration, 3 times in a week, for four weeks. The resulting data suggested a weak symptomatic effect but this has not been evaluated in larger studies.
Studies on the effects of glutathione on cutaneous microcirculation, arterial circulations and pain free walking in patients with peripheral obstructive arterial diseases concluded that glutathione can prolong and improve microcirculatory parameters and extend a pain free walking distance.
Through aerobic metabolism, the administration of glutathione can suppress muscle fatigue that is triggered by prolonged exercise.
Glutathione’s Mechanism Of Action.
Glutathione is one of the bodies essential molecules. It is required for detoxification. It performs its functions by aiding in the relocation of harmful and destructive oxygen-containing molecules from the body system. As the body performs its routine functions, excess oxygen-containing molecules which are very reactive are produced. These reactive molecules include peroxides and superoxide anions which contain an unpaired O2 electron. Since these molecules are too reactive, they can bind to other molecules in the body and inhibit their actions, because of this, they are excessively toxic to the cell and the whole body.
The human-body has a natural system of four enzymes that scavenge for and metabolise all reactive-oxygen species in the body. This host of enzymes include;
– Glutathione peroxidase. This enzyme detoxifies peroxides in conjunction with glutathione which donates an electron in this reaction to produce glutathione disulphide as its end product.
– Glutathione reductase. This enzyme acts as a catalyst in the reduction of glutathione disulphide to produce two glutathione molecules.
– Catalase. This is another enzyme which is a catalyst and it also takes part in detoxification.
– Superoxide dismutase. This enzyme takes part in the detoxification and relocation of superoxide species.
Glutathione is available the brain in very minute quantities. For this reason, tissue damage and oxidative stress can occur at greater rates in the brain when compared to tissues in other parts of the body. Oxidative-stress in the brain can result in the development of disease conditions like Parkinson’s disease which is characterised by impaired motor and cognitive functions and neurodegeneration. During the metabolism of dopamine in the brain, peroxides and other reactive-oxygen species are produced. The removal of these harmful oxygen molecules from the brain can suppress the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
The levels of glutathione between the cells of the liver increase with an increase in the detoxification processes. A molecular breakdown or an insufficient synthesis of glutathione can impair the function of the liver. If the reactive-oxygen species are not terminated in time, they can lead to cell destruction and cell death which may cause liver cirrhosis.
For some time now, there has been speculation surrounding the relationship between an organism’s age and the production of reactive-oxygen species in their bodies. The natural system of selection and mechanisms of all organisms enables them to reproduce before they die. After reproduction, cell damage may occur with time which eventually leads to their death.
Some of the natural detoxification molecules that contribute to the protection of the body against the reactive oxygen molecules include; water-soluble radical scavengers like ascorbate,GSH or urate, It also includes lipid soluble scavengers, α-tocopherol, flavonoids γ-tocopherol,carotenoids, ubiquinol. The redundancy co-operation between this group of defence pathways illustrate just how crucial protecting the body against reactive oxygen species is to an organism’s survival.
HOW IS THIS MEDICATION BEST TAKEN AND WHO SHOULD NOT ADMINISTER THIS MEDICINE?
This medication should be administered intramuscularly via injections. Taking this medication in sufficient amounts is known to be rather safe, but it should be administered cautiously in individuals with milk protein allergies and people who have recently received an organ transplant. Since not much studies have been done and concluded on its effects on pregnancy, lactation and infants, it is best to stay on the safer side and avoid it completely.
This medication has minimum side effects. Some cases of reduced zinc levels in the body have been reported with prolonged extended use.
You should store this medicine in a refrigerator at 35 F to 46F (2 C – 8 C). Keep all medicine away from the reach of children and make sure you throw away any remaining medicine that has surpassed its expiry date.
Glutathione Injections are prescribed for: Protecting the body from oxidative stress, free radicals, detoxification and liver health
The dosage combinations of Glutathione available in our pharmacy are 10 mL vials. 200 mg/mL
The form available is Injection Solution. Our Pharmacy’s injections are compounded under the strict guidelines of USP 797 for sterile and clean compounding. Potency and pH testing is conducted on every batch before we dispense it. Our quality assurance processes ensure the uniformity and consistency of every compound we produce.